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Page 1: Basic Electronics
              The capacitor - how it works
              The Diode - how the diode works
              Circuit Symbols - EVERY Circuit Symbol
              Soldering - videos
Page 2: The Transistor
              - PNP or NPN  Transistor TEST
Page 2a: The 555 IC 
                The 555 - 1
                The 555 - 2
                The 555 - 3
                The 555 TEST
Page 3: The Power Supply  
download as .pdf (900kB)
            3a:   - Constant Current
            3b:   - Voltage Regulator
            3c:   - Capacitor-fed Power Supply
Page 4: Digital  Electronics

            4a:   - Gates  Touch Switch Gating
Page 5: Oscillators

Page 6: Test - Basic Electronics (50 Questions)
Page 7: The Multimeter  - this page


Analogue Multimeter
Buying A Multimeter
Current  - measuring
Digital Multimeter
Diode - measuring
Pressure Cell
Resistance - measuring
Using A Multimeter
Voltage - measuring

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There are basically two different types of MULTIMETER. ANALOGUE and DIGITAL
Analogue Multimeters have a NEEDLE or POINTER that moves across a scale.
Digital Multimeters have a numeric display of 3 or more digits. A Digital Multimeter with 3 digits means the first digit shows only "1."

You really need both types to cover the number of tests needed for designing and repair-work.  We will discuss how they work, how to use them and some of the differences between them. 

The black (negative lead) ALWAYS stays in the
black hole and the red lead changes to the
red hole to measure 10 amps

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There are many different types on the market.
The cost is determined by the number of ranges and also the extra features such as diode tester, buzzer (continuity), transistor tester, high DC current and others.
Since most multimeters are reliable and accurate, buy one with the greatest number of ranges at the lowest cost.  The cheapest multimeters are on eBay.
This article explains the difference between an analogue meter and a digital meter.

Multimeters are sometimes called a "meter",  a "VOM"  (Volts-Ohms-Milliamps or Volt Ohm Meter) or "multi-tester" or even "a tester" - they are all the same.

One term used to describe a DIGITAL MULTIMETER is 3 digits.
This is the number of digits on the display. The first digit is usually made from two pixels and can only produce "1."  This is called a half-digit. The other digits are full digits. The cheapest digital multimeters have 3 digits. This will produce a reading of 1999 and the decimal point can produce values from 1.999 to 19.99 to 199.9 to 1999.
Another term is DISPLAY COUNTS. This is connected with the accuracy of the display, but since digital meters are accurate to 1% or less and we are using resistors with an accuracy of 5%, even a $10.00 digital meter will be perfect.
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Analogue and digital multimeters have either a rotary selector switch or push buttons to select the appropriate function and range. Some Digital Multimeters (DMMs) are auto ranging; they automatically select the correct range of voltage, resistance, or current when doing a test. However you  need to select the function.

Before making any measurement you need to know what you are checking. If you are measuring voltage, select the AC range (10v, 50v, 250v, or 1000v)  or DC range (0.5v, 2.5v, 10v, 50v, 250v, or 1000v). If you are measuring resistance, select the Ohms range (x1, x10, x100, x1k, x10k). If you are measuring current, select the appropriate current range DCmA 0.5mA, 50mA, 500mA, 10A. Every multimeter is different however the photo below shows a low cost Analogue multimeter with the basic ranges. 


The most important point to remember is this:
You must select a voltage or current range that is bigger or HIGHER than the maximum expected value, so the needle does not swing across the scale and hit the "end stop."
If you are using a DMM (Digital Multi Meter), the meter will indicate if the voltage or current is higher than the selected scale, by showing "OL" - this means "Overload." If you are measuring resistance such as 1M on the x10 range the "OL" means "Open Loop" and you will need to change the range.  Some meters show "1'  on the display when the measurement is higher than the display will indicate and some flash a set of digits to show over-voltage or over-current.  A "-1" indicates the leads should be reversed for a "positive reading."
If it is an AUTO RANGING meter, it will automatically produce a reading, otherwise the selector switch must be changed to another range.

A typical DIGITAL Multimeter

The Common (negative) lead ALWAYS fits into
the "
COM" socket. The red lead fits into the
red socket for Voltage and Resistance.
Place the red lead (red banana plug)
into "A" (for HIGH CURRENT "Amps")
or mA,uA for LOW CURRENT.

The black "test lead" plugs into the socket marked "-"  "Common", or "Com,"  and the red "test lead" plugs into the meter socket marked "+" or "V-W-mA."   The third banana socket measures HIGH CURRENT and the positive (red lead) plugs into this. You DO NOT move the negative "-" lead at any time.
The following two photos show the test leads fitted to a digital meter. The probes and plugs have "guards" surrounding the probe tips and also the plugs so you can measure high voltages without getting near the voltage-source.

Analogue meters have an "Ohms Adjustment" to allow for the change in voltage of the battery inside the meter (as it gets old).

"Ohms Adjust" is also called "ZERO SET"
The sensitivity of this meter is 20,000ohms/volt
on the DC ranges and 5k/v on the AC ranges

Before taking a resistance reading (each time, for any of the Ohms scales) you need to  "ZERO SET" the scale, by touching the two probes together and adjust the pot until the needle reads "0" (swings FULL SCALE). If the pointer does not reach full scale, the batteries need replacing. Digital multimeters do not need "zero adjustment."

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You cannot say one meter is better than the other because BOTH have advantages and disadvantages. 
An analogue multimeter is the "old style" and it puts a load on a circuit and this may change the reading to give an incorrect readout, but it has the advantage of the needle moving across the scale fairly quickly so you can sometimes see if the voltage is fluctuating.
It also gives a more-accurate result in some high frequency circuits as it does not pick up stray fields and produce a false reading.
Digital meters put almost no load on a circuit and produce accurate readings from both low-impedance and high-impedance circuits.
Digital meters can display very low resistances.
You must remember to turn a Digital meter OFF to prevent the battery going flat.

If you are testing a circuit containing a high-frequency oscillator, use BOTH an ANALOGUE and DIGITAL meter to check the reading.  Sometimes the leads of a Digital multimeter will pick up signals and create a false reading.
Sometimes you will get a voltage reading with a Digital multimeter due to a high resistance leak and a zero reading with an Analogue meter. This is why you need BOTH meters. 
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Most of the readings taken with a multimeter will be VOLTAGE readings.
Before taking a reading, you should select the highest range and if the needle does not move up scale (to the right), you can select another range.
Always switch to the highest range before probing a circuit and keep your fingers away from the component being tested.
If the meter is Digital, select the highest range or use the auto-ranging feature, by selecting "V." The meter will automatically produce a result, even if the voltage is AC or DC.
If the meter is not auto-ranging, you will have to select if the voltage is from a DC source or if the voltage is from an AC source. DC means Direct Current (but this does not mean you select the CURRENT range - you are taking a voltage reading that is not rising and falling. That's why we say it is DC and do not say the words "direct current").  The voltage is coming from a battery or supply where it is steady and not "rising and falling." 
You can measure the voltage at different points in a circuit by connecting the black probe to chassis. This is the 0v reference and is commonly called "Chassis" or "Earth" or "Ground" or "0v."
The red lead is called the "measuring lead" or "measuring probe" and it can measure voltages at any point in a circuit. Sometimes there are "test points" on a circuit and these are wires or loops designed to hold the tip of the red probe (or a red probe fitted with a mini clip).
You can also measure voltages ACROSS A COMPONENT. In other words, the reading is taken in PARALLEL with the component. It may be the voltage across a transistor, resistor, capacitor, diode or coil. In most cases this voltage will be less than the supply voltage.
If you are measuring the voltage in a circuit that has a HIGH IMPEDANCE, the reading will be inaccurate, up to 90% !!!, if you use a cheap analogue meter.

Here's a simple case.
The circuit below consists of two 1M resistors in series. The voltage at the mid point will be 5v when nothing is connected to the mid point. But if we use a cheap analogue multimeter set to 10v, the resistance of the meter will be about 100k, if the meter has a sensitivity of 10k/v and the reading will be incorrect.
Here how it works:
Every meter has a sensitivity. The sensitivity of the meter is the sensitivity of the movement and is the amount of current required to deflect the needle FULL SCALE.
This current is very small, normally 1/10th of a milliamp and corresponds to a sensitivity of 10k/volt (or 1/30th mA, for a sensitivity of 30k/v).
If an analogue meter is set to 10v, the internal resistance of the meter will be 100k for a 10k/v movement.
If this multimeter is used to test the following circuit, the reading will be inaccurate.
The reading should be 5v as show in diagram
But the analogue multimeter has an internal resistance of 100k and it creates a circuit shown in
The top 1M and 100k from the meter create a combined PARALLEL resistance of 90k. This forms a series circuit with the lower 1M and the meter will read less than 1v  
If we measure the voltage across the lower 1M, the 100k meter will form a value of resistance with the lower 1M and it will read less than 1v
If the multimeter is 30k/v, the readings will be 2v. See how easy it is to get a totally inaccurate reading.

If the reading is taken with a Digital Meter, it will be more accurate as a DMM does not take any current from the circuit (to activate the meter). In other words it has a very HIGH input impedance. Most Digital Multimeters have a fixed input resistance (impedance) of 10M - no matter what scale is selected. That's the reason for choosing a DMM for high impedance circuits.  It also gives a reading that is accurate to about 1%.

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You can take many voltage-measurements in a circuit. You can measure "across" a component, or between any point in a circuit and either the positive rail or earth rail (0v rail). In the following circuit, the 5 most important voltage-measurements are shown. Voltage "A" is across the electret microphone. It should be between 20mV and 500mV. Voltage "B" should be about 0.6v. Voltage "C" should be about half-rail voltage. This allows the transistor to amplify both the positive and negative parts of the waveform. Voltage "D" should be about 1-3v. Voltage "E" should be the battery voltage of 12v.
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You will rarely need to take current measurements, however most multimeters have DC current ranges such as 0.5mA, 50mA, 500mA and 10Amp (via the extra banana socket) and some meters have AC current ranges.  Measuring the current of a circuit will tell you a lot of things.  If you know the normal current, a high or low current can let you know if the circuit is overloaded or not fully operational.

Current is always measured when the circuit is working (i.e: with power applied).
It is measured IN SERIES with the circuit or component under test.
The easiest way to measure current is to remove the fuse and take a reading across the fuse-holder. Or remove one lead of the battery or turn the project off, and measure across the switch.
If this is not possible, you will need to remove one end of a component and measure with the two probes in the "opening."
Resistors are the easiest things to desolder, but you may have to cut a track in some circuits. You have to get an "opening" so that a current reading can be taken.
The following diagrams show how to connect the probes to take a CURRENT reading. 
Do not measure the current ACROSS a component as this will create a "short-circuit."
The component is designed to drop a certain voltage and when you place the probes across this component, you are effectively adding a "link" or "jumper" and the voltage at the left-side of the component will appear on the right-side. This voltage may be too high for the circuit being supplied and the result will be damage.

Measuring the current of a globe

Do NOT measure the CURRENT of a battery
(by placing the meter directly across the terminals)
A battery will deliver a very HIGH current
and damage the meter

Do not measure the "current a battery will deliver" by placing the probes across the terminals. It will deliver a very high current and damage the meter instantly. There are special battery testing instruments for this purpose.
When measuring across an "opening" or "cut," place the red probe on the wire that supplies the voltage (and current) and the black probe on the other wire. This will produce a "POSITIVE" reading.
A positive reading is an UPSCALE READING and the pointer will move across the scale - to the right. A "NEGATIVE READING" will make the pointer hit the "STOP" at the left of the scale and you will not get a reading. If you are using a Digital Meter, a negative sign "-" will appear on the screen to indicate the probes are around the wrong way. No damage will be caused. It just indicates the probes are connected incorrectly. 
If you want an accurate CURRENT MEASUREMENT, use a digital meter.

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Turn a circuit off before measuring resistance.
If any voltage is present, the value of resistance will be incorrect.
In most cases you cannot measure a component while it is in-circuit. This is because the meter is actually measuring a voltage across a component and calling it a "resistance." The voltage comes from the battery inside the meter. If any other voltage is present, the meter will produce a false reading.
If you are measuring the resistance of a component while still "in circuit," (with the power off) the reading will be lower than the true reading.

Measuring resistance

Measuring resistance of a heater
(via the leads)

Measuring the resistance of a piece of resistance-wire

Measuring the resistance of a resistor

Do not measure the "Resistance of a Battery"

1. Do not measure the "resistance of a battery." The resistance of a battery (called the Internal impedance) is not measured as shown in the diagrams above. It is measured by creating a current-flow and measuring the voltage across the battery.  Placing a multimeter set to resistance (across a battery) will destroy the meter. 
2. Do not try to measure the resistance of any voltage or any "supply."

Resistance is measured in OHMs.
The resistance of a 1cm x 1cm bar, one metre long is 1 ohm.
If the bar is thinner, the resistance is higher. If the bar is longer, the resistance is higher.
If the material of the bar is changed, the resistance is higher.
When carbon is mixed with other elements, its resistance increases and this knowledge is used to make RESISTORS.
Resistors have RESISTANCE and the main purpose of a resistor is to reduce the CURRENT FLOW.
It's a bit like standing on a hose. The flow reduces.
When current flow is reduced, the output voltage is also reduced and that why the water does not spray up so high. Resistors are simple devices but they produce many different effects in a circuit.
A resistor of nearly pure carbon may be 1 ohm, but when non-conducting "impurities" are added, the same-size resistor may be 100 ohms, 1,000 ohms or 1 million ohms.
Circuits use values of less than 1 ohm to more than 22 million ohms.

Resistors are identified on a circuit with numbers and letters to show the exact value of resistance - such as 1k    2k2    4M7
The letter
W  (omega  - a Greek symbol) is used to identify (or express) (or represent) the word "Ohm."
But this symbol is not available on some word-processors, so the letter "R" is used.  The letter "E" is also sometimes used and both mean "Ohms."
A one-ohm resistor is written "1R" or "1E."  It can also be written "1R0" or "1E0."  
A resistor of one-tenth of an ohm is written  "0R1" or "0E1."   The letter takes the place of the decimal point.
10 ohms  =  10R  
100 ohms = 100R

1,000 ohms = 1k (k= kilo = one thousand)
10,000 ohms = 10k
100,000 ohms = 100k
1,000,000 ohms = 1M   (M = MEG = one million)

The size of a resistor has nothing to do with its resistance. The size determines the wattage of the resistor - how much heat it can dissipate without getting too hot.
Every resistor is identified by colour bands on the body, but when the resistor is a surface-mount device, numbers are used and sometimes letters.
You MUST learn the colour code for resistors and the following table shows all the colours for the most common resistors from 1/10th of an ohm to 22 Meg ohms for resistors with 5% and 10% tolerance. 

If 3rd band is gold, Divide by 10
If 3rd band is silver, Divide by 100
(to get 0.22ohms etc)


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Make your own variable resistor that changes resistance according to the pressure. 
Use a piece of conductive foam used to package Integrated Circuits. You can ask at an electronics shop.
Use two coins or pieces of printed circuit board or aluminium foil for the top and bottom conductors.
You can solder wires to the PC board or fold the aluminium foil over a few times to hold the wires.
The resistance of the foam will reduce as you press on the "cell."
The actual resistance-values will depend on the size of the foam, the thickness and pressure.
This cell is a very simple cell called a LOAD CELL.

The top and bottom "plates"

The foam is placed between the plates.

The complete LOAD CELL

The resistance of the unloaded LOAD CELL

The fully loaded resistance can be as low as 9,330 ohms

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CONTINUITY is the same as ZERO OHMS or the resistance of a short length of wire. It can also mean the resistance through a switch or globe or a low-value resistor.
It basically means a "PATH" and sometimes refers to a whole circuit when the switch is closed. In other words CONTINUITY means we have a "circuit." We have "current flowing" and generally refers to a low-resistance circuit.
Both ANALOGUE and DIGITAL multimeters can measure CONTINUITY and you have to work out the approximate value of resistance for the circuit you are testing, - BEFORE TAKING A READING.
If the reading is above 300 ohms or contains a diode, you cannot use a DIGITAL MULTIMETER as the buzzer on the continuity setting will not respond.

The project being tested must not have the power applied as the resistance ranges on a multimeter are actually measuring a voltage across the leads and any voltage on the circuit or contained in any electrolytics, will upset the reading.

To take a reading with an ANALOGUE multimeter, select the x1 setting and the pointer will move across the scale to the actual value of resistance.
It it move full scale, you have ZERO OHMS resistance and this can mean a short-circuit or continuity via a wire.
If a diode is in the circuit you must also reverse the leads to get a reading.
The resistance of a globe will be very low when it is not illuminated, so don't think a fault is present. 
Measuring CONTINUITY is the same as measuring LOW RESISTANCE.

To take a reading with a DIGITAL multimeter, select the buzzer setting. It will respond if the resistance is less than 300 ohms.   It will not respond if a diode is in the circuit.


You can also use the x1 resistance setting to get an accurate value of resistance. Touch the probes together to get the initial reading and subtract this value from the final reading.
When probing a circuit containing electrolytics, you may get a beep from the buzzer.
This indicates the resistance is low because the multimeter is charging the electrolytic and it will beep until the electrolytic is charged to about 0.7v.
The same applies when probing across the power rails of a circuit. The circuit may contain electrolytics that will  charge when probing and the buzzer will beep. 
The Digital multimeter is actually detecting a voltage less than 0.7v across the probes and is created by a voltage-divider network inside the meter.
The voltage divider put 2v across the probes and when this drops to less than 0.5v, the buzzer is activated. That why it odes not buzz when testing a diode as the diode drops the voltage to 0.6v. 

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A diode can be measured to see if it is "open" or "damaged" or "working" by placing the probes across the component.
If the diode is "open"  (it will not work), the needle will NOT swing across the scale when touching the component with the probes in one direction or when the probes are reversed.
If the diode is "damaged" (does not work), the needle will swing fully across the scale when touching the component with the probes in one direction or when the probes are reversed.
If the diode is FUNCTIONAL, (works) the needle will swing about mid-way when touching the leads of the diode in one direction and it will not move when the probes are reversed.

The positive of the battery inside an analogue multimeter comes out the black probe and that is why you will get a reading when the probers are "around the wrong way." The needle will swing a different amount for each resistance setting on the dial as the needle represents 0.6v drop and NOT an actual resistance.

There are two things you must remember.
1. When the diode is measured in one direction, the needle will will not move at all. The technical term for this is the diode is reverse biased. It will not allow any current to flow. Thus the needle will not move.
When the diode is connected around the other way, the needle will swing to the right (move up scale) to about 80% of the scale. This position represents the voltage drop across the junction of the diode and is NOT a resistance value. If you change the resistance range, the needle will move to a slightly different position due to the resistances inside the meter. The technical term for this is the diode is forward biased. This indicates the diode is not faulty.
The needle will swing to a slightly different position for a "normal diode" compared to a Schottky diode. This is due to the different junction voltage drops.
However we are only testing the diode at very low voltage and it may break-down when fitted to a circuit due to a higher voltage being present or due to a high current flowing. 

2. The leads of an Analogue Multimeter have the positive of the battery connected to the black probe and the readings of a "good diode" are shown in the following two diagrams:

The diode is REVERSE BIASED in the
diagram above and diodes not conduct


The diode is FORWARD BIASED in the
diagram above and it conducts

A Digital multimeter will measure the voltage-drop across the diode when the probes are connected in one direction (approx 0.640 on the scale) and a high reading (1) in the other direction. You need to select the "DIODE" setting on the dial as the other settings will produce a meaningless reading.   

Some DIGITAL MULTIMETERS will show mV drop
across the diode when the setting on the meter is
diode" or the "x1" or  "x10"  resistance range.  

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Some multimeters will test LEDs.
It depends on the voltage of the battery inside the case of the multimeter.
Many analogue multimeters have a single 1.5v cell and these cannot test LEDs.
Analogue Multimeters with 3v (for the resistance ranges) can test some LEDs.
White LEDs need about 3.6v and they may not illuminate on 3v.  

The negative lead of an ANALOGUE meter is POSITIVE!
The multimeter must have 3v (2 cells)

Digital multimeters have a 9v battery and they will illuminate all colour LEDs when the leads are placed as shown in the diagram:

A Digital meter will illuminate all LEDs and the black probe
touches the cathode.

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Testing a transistor with a Digital Meter must be done on the "DIODE" setting as a digital meter does not deliver a current through the probes on some of the resistance settings and will not produce an accurate reading.
The "DIODE" setting must be used for diodes and transistors. It should also be called a "TRANSISTOR" setting.

The first thing you may want to do is test an unknown transistor for COLLECTOR, BASE AND EMITTER. You also want to perform a test to find out if it is NPN or PNP.
That's what this test will provide.
You need a cheap multimeter called an ANALOGUE METER  - a multimeter with a scale and pointer (needle).
It will measure resistance values (normally used to test resistors) - (you can also test other components) and Voltage and Current. We use the resistance settings. It may have ranges such as "x10"  "x100"   "x1k"   "x10"
Look at the resistance scale on the meter. It will be the top scale.
The scale starts at zero on the right and the high values are on the left. This is opposite to all the other scales.
When the two probes are touched together, the needle swings FULL SCALE and reads "ZERO." Adjust the pot on the side of the meter to make the pointer read exactly zero

How to read:  "x10"  "x100"   "x1k"   "x10"
Up-scale from the zero mark is "1" 
When the needle swings to this position on the "x10" setting, the value is 10 ohms.
When the needle swings to "1" on the "x100" setting, the value is 100 ohms.
When the needle swings to "1" on the "x1k" setting, the value is 1,000 ohms = 1k.
When the needle swings to "1" on the "x10k" setting, the value is 10,000 ohms = 10k.
Use this to work out all the other values on the scale.
Resistance values get very close-together (and very inaccurate) at the high end of the scale. [This is just a point to note and does not affect testing a transistor.]

Step 1   - FINDING THE BASE  and determining NPN or PNP
Get an unknown transistor and test it with a multimeter set to "x10"
Try the 6 combinations and when you have the black probe on a pin and the red probe touches the other pins and the meter swings nearly full scale, you have an NPN transistor. The black probe is BASE
If the red probe touches a pin and the black probe produces a swing on the other two pins, you have a PNP transistor. The red probe is BASE
If the needle swings FULL SCALE or if it swings for more than 2 readings, the transistor is

Set the meter to "x10k." 
For an NPN transistor, place the leads on the transistor and when you press hard on the two leads shown in the diagram below, the needle will swing almost full scale.  

For a PNP transistor, set the meter to "x10k" place the leads on the transistor and when you press hard on the two leads shown in the diagram below, the needle will
swing almost full scale.


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For more details on testing components with a multimeter, see:
Testing Electronic Components.
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1. What is the reading on the multimeter:


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2. What is the reading on the multimeter:

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3. What is the reading on the multimeter:


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4. What is the voltage between the following points:

Between  1 & 3
Between  5 & 7
Between  3 & 8
Between  1 & 7
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5. What is the voltage on each multimeter:

   Meter A


  Meter B
  Meter C
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6. What is the voltage on each multimeter:

   Meter A


  Meter B
  Meter C
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7. What is the reading on the multimeter:


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8. The multimeter has three resistance ranges:   x1 ohms   x100 ohms    x10k ohms
How far across the scale will the needle move on each range for a 4k7 resistor:


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9. The resistance ranges on an ANALOGUE multimeter use the battery inside the case to move the pointer. If the multimeter is left on "ohms range" with the probes apart, will the battery go flat?


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